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2013-09-02 19:56来源:山东自考网
  1.centrally-planned economy 中央计划经济
  2.market economy 市场经济
  3.disinflationary (anti-inflationary) policies 反通货膨胀政策
  4.deflation 通货紧缩
  5.short-term dollar interest rates 短期美元利率
  6.commodity market 商品市场
  7.nominal (dollar) terms 名义(美元)价
  8.constant (dollar) terms 不变(美元)价9.business cycle 商业周期
  10.weighted average 加权平均数
  11.hard currencies 硬通货
  12.fiscal adjustment 财政调整
  13.portfolio investment 有价证券投资
  14.market diversification 市场多元化
  15.tight credit policy 紧缩的信贷政策16.exchange-rate devaluation 汇率贬值
  17.accommodative monetary policy 融通性货币政策
  18.yield curve 收益曲线
  19.per capita GDP 人均国内生产总值
  20.GATT: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 关贸总协定
  21.EMS: European Monetary System 欧洲货币体系
  22.GDP deflator 消除国内生产总值通货膨胀因素指数( GDP 平减指数)
  23.CMEA (Comecon): Council for Mutual Economic Assistance 经互会
  24.LIBOR: London Inter-Bank Offered Rate 伦敦同业银行优惠利率
  22.per capita income 人均收入
  23.multilateral trade agreements 多边贸易协定
  24.Portfolio investment 证券投资
  25.cyclical deceleration in investment spending 生产总值通货膨胀因素指数
  26.the population-weighted growth rate 人口加权增长率
  1.in a row: in succession
  2.easing: slowing down; decrease
  3.momentum: force of movement
  4.underlying: being at the basis of
  5.slackening: slowing of speed
  6.compound: worsen
  7.moderate inflation: ease inflation
  8.robust: strong and healthy
  9.setbacks: frustrations
  10.slump: depression
  11.edge down: move slowly down
  12.depreciation: devaluation
  13.spike: abrupt increase
  14.pick-up: recovery
  15.rein in: control
  16.bottoming-out: reaching the lowest point before rising again ( 止跌回升)
  17.stagnat: stop; almost
  1.International conditions for growth in developing countries deteriorated in 1991. The Seven major industrial countries (the G-7) experienced a significant slowdown in GDP growth-from 2.8 percent in 1990 to 1.9 percent during 1991 as recession gripped Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States and growth rates slowed in Continental Europe and Japan. In important respects. The slowdown was different from those that occurred during the 1970s and 1980s. Rather than reflecting the effect of disinflationary policies, weakness in demand was more closely related to the loss of momentum that had built up during the long period of expansion that began in 1983. In addition, a common factor underlying the slowdown in many industrial countries was the cyclical deceleration in investment spending.
  2.Although the weakness in demand in the United States led to a sharp decline in short-term dollar interest rates—a positive development for many developing countries—it also contributed to a drop of over 6 percent in nominal commodity prices and to a slackening, to 3 percent, in the growth of world trade. These trends were compounded by worsening economic conditions in the soviet Union and its successor states, where a growing shortage of foreign exchange led to a compression of import from Eastern Europe and an acceleration of certain commodity exports to earn hard currencies.
  3.Financial stress brought on by excessive debt in the household and corporate sectors was an example of another kind of structural problem, in particular for the economies of Japan and the United States. Financial institutions in these two countries adopted more conservative lending policies, curtailing financing of higher-risk projects such as commercial construction and highly leveraged corporate transaction. A number of weaker institutions were also consolicated through bankruptcy, merger and reorganization.
  4.The major risk facing this highly trade-oriented region is the potential for sluggishness or disruption in world-trade flows. Economic weakness in some of the region's traditional export markets has underlined the importance of market diversification, including a further strengthening of ties within the region. Increasingly buoyant intraregional trade in East Asia may be viewed as evidence of an ongoing process of “market-oriented” regional integration, a development that could partially offset lackluster progress in the area of multilateral trade agreements.