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2013-09-02 19:57来源:山东自考网
  制成品 manufactured goods 资本货物 capital goods 国际收支 balance of payments 经常项目 current account 有形贸易项目 visible trade account 无形贸易项目 invisible trade account 贸易顺差 trade surplus 贸易逆差 trade deficit
  易货贸易 barter 补偿贸易 compensation trade 反向贸易 counter-trade 组装生产 assembly manufacturing 工商统一税 industrial and commercial consolidated tax 合资企业 joint venture 延期付款 deferred payment 买方信贷 buyer credit 卖方信贷 supplier credit 软贷款 (低息贷款) soft loan 最惠国待遇 MFN treatment (Most Favored nation treatment)
  永久性正常贸易关系 PNTR(Permanent Normal Trading Relations) 国民收入 NI(National Income) 国民生产总值 GNP(Gross National Product) 国内生产总值 GDP(Gross Domestic Product) 国际复兴和开发银行 IBRD(International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) 国际开发协会 IDA(International Development Association) 国际金融公司 IFC(International Finance Comporation) 经济合作和发展组织 OECD(Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)
  国际清算银行 BIS(Bank for International Settlement) 欧洲经济共同体 EEC(European Economic Community) 欧洲联盟 EU(European Union) 外商直接投资 FDI(Foreign Direct Investment)
  substantially : dramatically, significantly, considerably
  subsequently: afterwards
  exacerbate: deteriorate, worsen; aggravate; make worse
  withdraw: cancellation
  theme: principle
  in return for: in exchange for
  disrupt: interrupt
  destined: designed
  pronounced: marked
  in the wake of: following; after with
  undue: too much; unbearable
  reverse: change to the opposite
  buoyant: brisk
  outcome: result
  boost: stimulate; promote; develop
  recover: rebound
  facilitate: make easy
  run-down: reduction
  mount exhibitions: hold exhibitions
  insofar as: to the extent
  bottlenecks: obstacles
  1. During the 1950s China exported agricultural products to the USSR and East European countries in return for manufactured goods and the capital equipment required for the country‘s industrialization programme which placed emphasis on the development of heavy industry.
  2. The growth of foreign trade was distrupted again during the Cultural Revolution when agricultural and industrial production fell sharply and transportation constraints became more serious.
  3. Exports grew much faster than imports during this period not only because of the strong emphasis placed on exporting by China‘s economic planners, but also because a number of industrial projects were postponed in 1979. Official recognition that foreign technology could play a major role in modernizing the Chinese economy has caused imports to rise by more than 50 per cent in 1978, placing undue strain on the national economy.
  4. Chinese official stress the importance of introducing advanced technology to domestic industry, but the need is for technology of varying degrees of sophistication,not necessarily for advanced technology as that term is understood in the West.
  5. There are no official statistics covering the invisible account of the balance of payments,but the size of the visible trade surplus during 1981-1983 and a pronounced increase in earnings from tourism suggest that the current account has been in surplus over the past few years.
  6. Goods are produced according to a sample provided by the customer,while strong encouragement is given to compensation trade whereby a foreign seller supplies raw materials and equipment and receives manufactured goods, produced by the equipment provided,in return .Compensation trade differs from barter or counter-trade insofar as there is a direct link between the equipment supplied from abroad and the manufactured product. Assembly manufacturing began in 1978 and particular forms of foreign trade are eligible for exemption from customs duties and taxation.
  7. The debt problems confronting a number of developing countries have reinforced China‘s determination to introduce foreign technology by means of direct investment and concessionary finance rather than by raising substantial sums of money on the international capital markets. The authorities do not consider it appropriate to incur large amounts of external debt until a number of practical bottlenecks in the economy, such as an inadequate transport network and energy constraints, have been tackled.
  1.The special Economic Zone 经济特区
  2.a well-placed source 一位高层消息灵通人士
  3.infrastructure 基础设施
  4.capital stock 实际资本
  5.consumer goods 消费品
  6.preferential tax rate 优惠税率
  7.cooperative enterprise 合作(经营)企业
  8.ETDZ ( Economic &Technical Development Zone )经济技术开发区
  9.entrepreneurship 企业家精神
  10.means of production 生产资料
  11.stock-taking 评估
  12.Allocation of resources 资源配置
  13.macroregulation and control 宏观调控
  14.fiscal policies 财政政策
  15.tight monetary policy 紧缩的货币政策
  16.working capital 运营资本
  17.basic policy 基本国策
  18.technical transformation 技术革新
  1.in piecemeal form: piece by piece; gradually 逐渐的
  2.showpiece: a prime or outstanding example 典范
  3.pipedream: fantasy; daydream; dream that cannot be realized 白日梦
  4.from scratch: from the very beginning 从零开始,从最初开始
  5.grassroots: basic level 基层
  6.the dust settles: the confusion ends 尘埃落定
  7.in the driver‘s seat: in the dominant position
  1.A clearly confident China has rolled up a large section of its bamboo curtain, declared itself “open to the outside world” and hung signs on nearly all its cities inviting foreign investors to come and do serious business.
  2.The literally, this does not make more sense as the parts of the coast which have not been “opened” are simply not ready for the demands of foreign businessman.
  3.In the SEZs, which are being built almost from scratch, foreigners can invest in anything which the state deems useful for the country, be it, for example, production of goods for export or construction of private-housing estates.
  4.So, while comprehensive framework for the country“s modernization has been provided by the central committee”s 21 October 1984 decision to reform the economic structure, it will be some time before the dust settles and local authorities and foreign investors can deal with one another in a systematic way.
  因此,虽然中央委员会1984年10月21日的改革经济结构的决定为该国的现代化提供了一个综合的框架,但要等尘埃落定、要等地方政府与外国投资者能有条不紊的打交道却还需要一段时间。 bbs.zikao.sh.cn/
  5.Stock-taking of the open policy will come later this year when the National People‘s Congress discusses the seventh five-year plan, which will run to the end of the decade.
  1.economic heavyweight 举足轻重的经济强国
  2.commercial hub 商业活动中心
  3.Per capita 人均
  4.Gross National Product 国民生产总值
  5.punitive import tariff 惩罚性进口关税
  6.securities 有价证券
  7.real estate market 房地产市场
  8.“ Greater China”trade bloc “大中华”贸易集团
  9.conglomerate 跨行业公司
  10.consortium 国际财团
  11.GATT:General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 关贸总协定
  1.jockey: move
  2.is bustling with: is filled with
  3.giddy: dizzy; euphoric
  4.farfetched: improbable; incredible
  5.clear: earn a net profit
  6.deal a hard blow t strike heavily
  7.rung: level
  8.retaliation: return of ill treatment for ill treatment; revenge; reprisal
  9.career out of control: run out of control
  1. A farfetched prediction? The new American administration doesn't think so. Bill Clinton has appointed China hands to top Asia posts at the state and Treasury departments. When critics called the appointments a slight to Japan, the leading Pacific economic power, U.S. Deputy Treasury Secretary Roger Altman explained the administration's reasoning: by early in the next century, he said ,China may replace Japan in importance to the U.S. as an economic partner. Japan recognizes the rise of China. As a warning shot in an intensifying rivalry, Tokyo last week put punitive import tariffs on Chinese steel.
  2.With the U.S. Congress due to consider the renewal of China's most-favored nation trade status in June, officials in Beijing fear the trade imbalance could surpass human rights as a source of U.S. opposition to preferred status for China. "The trade surplus itself will be the NO.1 problem this year." Says one Chinese official. "After Japan, we'll be first in line for relation."
  3.However, even as the party promotes growth as a national priority, it worries about going too far. Inflation has recently climbed back into double digits, and the party press is issuing strident warnings, urging restraint on buyers and sellers alike. Rapid development is overwhelming China's antique transport networks.